Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 09-151

**Published Version**

In Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development, Timothy J. Bartik. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 2011. pp. 219-266. Under title Who Benefits? Distributional Effects of Early Childhood Programs and Business Incentives, and Their Implications for Policy


This is a draft of a chapter of a planned book, Preschool and Jobs: Human Development as Economic Development, and Vice Versa [subsequently published as Investing in Kids, 2011]. This book analyzes early childhood programs effects on regional economic development. This chapter considers the effects of early childhood programs and business incentives on the income distribution. A key issue is whether early childhood programs should be targeted on the poor, or made universally available for free. Relevant considerations in addressing this issue include how benefits of early childhood programs benefit with family income, and the political feasibility of targeted versus universal programs.

Issue Date

July 2009


Partially funded by Pew Charitable Trusts

Subject Areas

EDUCATION; Early childhood; Preschool and early education; ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT; Regional policy and planning; Business and tax incentives