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The authors identify and analyze the strategies for change and techniques most often used in today's labor negotiations. Nearly gone, they say, is the traditional "arms length" approach used by negotiators in the past. Instead, modern collective bargaining is characterized mainly by divergent strategies the authors characterize as either "forcing" (highly contentious) or "fostering" (highly cooperative). A dozen detailed case studies from a variety of industries are presented that show when, why and how these strategies are used, by whom, and to what result. These cases clearly demonstrate the use of both forcing and fostering strategies, as well as their combined and sequential uses. Cutcher-Gershenfeld, McKersie and Walton also provide analyses which clarify the reasons for the success or failure of approaches used in each case. And there is a highly useful discussion of eight relevant environmental factors that influence how negotiated changes unfold.


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  1. Why Change? - Forcing - Fostering
  2. Managing the Dynamics
  3. Combined Strategies
  4. Understanding the Context and Choices
  5. For Strategic Negotiations
  6. Learning to Be a Strategic Negotiator


9780880991551 (pbk.) ; 9780585232256 (ebook)

Subject Areas

LABOR MARKET ISSUES; Employment relationships; Unions and collective bargaining

Pathways to Change: Case Studies of Strategic Negotiations




Cutcher-Gershenfeld, Joel E., Robert B. McKersie, and Richard E. Walton. 1995. Pathways to Change: Case Studies of Strategic Negotiations. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.