Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 09-150

**Published Version**

In Investing in Kids: Early Childhood Programs and Local Economic Development, Timothy J. Bartik. 2011. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, pp. 175-217. Under title Bringing the Future into the Present: How Policymakers Should Deal with the Delayed Benefits of Early Childhood Programs


This is a draft of a chapter of a planned book, Preschool and Jobs: Human Development as Economic Development, and Vice Versa [subsequently published as Investing in Kids, 2011]. This chapter considers a problem with early childhood programs: their effects on earnings are mostly long-delayed. The delay occurs because most earnings effects are on former child participants. The chapter considers appropriate discounting of benefits and how the upfront costs of early childhood programs can be delayed or reduced. It also addresses how the long-run benefits of early childhood programs can be moved up or increased.

Issue Date

June 2009


Partially funded by Pew Charitable Trusts

Subject Areas

EDUCATION; Early childhood; Preschool and early education; ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT; Regional policy and planning; Business and tax incentives