Publication Date





Kletzer adds to our understanding of the magnitude of the costs and benefits of free trade. She presents a focused examination of the relationship between changes in international trade, employment, and job displacement for a sample of U.S. manufacturing industries. The link between international trade and domestic jobs is also explored through studies of both net and gross employment job change.


Full Book PDF

Download Full Text (823 KB)

Download 1. Introduction (101 KB)


  1. Introduction
  2. Understanding the Links between Increasing
  3. Foreign Competition and Domestic Employment and Job Loss
  4. Evidence from Earlier Studies
  5. Inside Manufacturing
  6. Modeling Labor Market Responses to Changes in Trade and Import Competition
  7. Measuring the Link between Changes in Industry Employment and Changes in Trade Flows
  8. Job Displacement and Foreign Competition
  9. Conclusions and Policy Implication


9780880992480 (cloth) ; 9780880992473 (pbk.) ; 9780585441542 (ebook)

Subject Areas

LABOR MARKET ISSUES; Job security and unemployment dynamics; Dislocated workers; INTERNATIONAL ISSUES; Globalization; Offshoring; Trade issues

Imports, Exports, and Jobs: What Does Trade Mean for Employment and Job Loss?




Kletzer, Lori G. 2002. Imports, Exports, and Jobs: What Does Trade Mean for Employment and Job Loss? Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International License.